Physics Practicals Class 12

Transistor Characteristics

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About Simulation

  • Transistor characteristics experiment is one of the important class 12 physics practicals that you can learn in our virtual lab.
  • The simulation will give an entire idea about the characteristics of a transistor and its amplification factor.
  • You will learn the concept of configurations of transistors based on their biasing, characteristics of the transistor, and applications of a transistor.
  • You will get the knowledge of measuring the least count of various components, plotting the input, output, and transfer characteristics of a transistor, and calculating the input resistance, output resistance, and amplification factor of a transistor.

Transistor Characteristics

  • All the experiment steps and procedures like calculating the least counts, noting down the readings, plotting the graphs, etc., and many more are highly interactive and have been simulated in a very similar manner as you do in a physics lab.
  • This interaction provides a very immersive environment and gives you a real-lab-like experience while conducting or performing experiments.
  • This will help learners to better prepare for various competitive exams such as IIT-JEE (JEE Main & Advanced), NEET, and Olympiads.

Simulation Details

Duration – 30 Minutes
Easily Accessible
Language – English
Platforms – Android & Windows


A transistor is a type of semiconductor device that can be used to both conduct and insulate electric current or voltage. It is a three-terminal device having two PN junctions. The three terminals have different sizes and different doping concentrations.

Emitter is of moderate size and heavily doped. Collector is moderately doped and larger as compared to the emitter. The base is very thin and lightly doped.

A junction transistor is formed by sandwiching a thin layer of p-type semiconductors with two n-type semiconductors or sandwiching a thin layer of n-type semiconductors with two p-type semiconductors. Based on this, there are two types of transistors:

a) n-p-n transistor
b) p-n-p transistor

When a transistor is to be connected in a circuit, one of the terminals has to be common between input and output. Hence, there are three configurations as follows:

  • Common emitter (CE) configuration
  • Common base (CB) configuration
  • Common collector (CC) configuration

CE configuration:

When a transistor is used in CE configuration, the input is fed between the base and emitter terminals and the output is derived between the collector–emitter terminals.

a) Input characteristics

The variation of the input current 𝐼𝐵 with input voltage 𝑉𝐵𝐸 keeping output voltage 𝑉𝐶𝐸 constant is known as input characteristics. The input resistance is the ratio of base – emitter voltage to the change in base current. $$r_i=\left(\frac{\Delta \mathrm{V_{BE}}}{\Delta \mathrm{I_{B}}}\right){\mathrm{V}_{\mathrm{CE}}=\mathrm{constan} \mathrm{t}}$$

b) Output characteristics

The variation in output collector current with output voltage for different values of input current is known as output characteristics. The output resistance is the ratio of change in collector – emitter voltage to the change in collector current at constant base current. $$r_o=\left(\frac{\Delta \mathrm{V_{CE}}}{\Delta \mathrm{I_{C}}}\right){\mathrm{I}_{\mathrm{B}}=\mathrm{constant}}$$

c) Transfer characteristics

The variation in output collector current with base current at constant output voltage is known as the transfer characteristics. The current gain is the ratio of change in collector current to the change in base current. $$\beta=\left(\frac{\Delta \mathrm{I_C}}{\Delta \mathrm{I} _{\mathrm{ B}}}\right){\mathrm{V}_{\mathrm{CE}}=\text { constant }}$$

The voltage gain, $$A_V=\frac{\Delta V_o}{\Delta V_i}=\frac{\Delta \mathrm{I_C}}{\Delta \mathrm{I_B}} \cdot \frac{r_o}{r_i}$$ $$\Rightarrow A_V=\beta \frac{r_o}{r_i}$$

Requirements for this Science Experiment

NPN Transistor Variable Power Supply Plug Key Ammeter Voltmeter Rheostat

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