Biology Practicals Class 12
Mendel’s Law of Segregation
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- This virtual biology lab introduces the learner to the genetic branch of biology.
- Mendel’s law of segregation is explained with the help of simple activity through this biology practical class 12.
- Introduction to terms such as phenotype, genotype, etc, which are commonly used in a genetics study.
- Learners will study about the Punnett square and the presentation of genes in the Punnett square in this biology practical class 12.
- This biology practical helps the learner to identify the genotype of the different generations.
- This biology practical also helps the learners to identify the phenotype of the different generations.
The modern understanding of generational inheritance of traits is based upon the studies made by Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk. He selected pea plants (Pisum sativum) for his breeding experiments because they serve as a good model being an annual plant with perfect bisexual flowers along with many contrasting characteristics.
When both the parents with certain characteristics of pure lines are crossed, then all the members of the progeny are of only one phenotype. The phenotype that is expressed in the progeny of the first generation, also known as the first filial generation (F1), is the dominant character, while the phenotype which isn’t expressed is the recessive character.
In this biology practical of Mendel’s law, we’re going to consider pure homozygous dominant yellow colour seed coat in pea plant with pure recessive green colour seed coat in pea plant for pollination. In F1 generation, all the progeny has phenotypically purple flowers. When F1 generation was self-pollinated, and the F2 generation was obtained, it was observed that both yellow and green colour seed coats appeared in a ratio of 3:1 (3 yellow and 1 green).
From the results obtained in F2 generation, Mendel proposed that each character (trait) and one factor (later known as gene) was inherited from each parent through gametes. Hence, he inferred that alleles of these traits segregate while getting inherited, called the law of segregation.
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Requirements for this Science Experiment
⦁ Beaker ⦁ Beads