Biology Practicals Class 12

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment

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About Simulation

  • This virtual biology lab introduces the learner to the genetic branch of biology.
  • Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment is explained with the help of simple activity in this biology practical class 12.
  • Introduction to terms such as phenotype, genotype, etc., are commonly used in a genetics study.
  • Learners will know about the Punnett square and the presentation of genes in the Punnett square in this biology practical class 12.
  • This biology practical will help the learner to identify the genotype of the different generations.
  • This biology practical also helps the learner to identify the phenotype of the different generations.

Mendel’s law of Independent assortment

Simulation Details

Duration – 30 Minutes
Easily Accessible
Language – English
Platforms – Android & Windows


The modern understanding of the generational inheritance of traits is based upon the studies made by Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk. He selected pea plants (Pisum sativum) for his breeding experiments because they serve as a good model being an annual plant with perfect bisexual flowers along with many contrasting characteristics.

When both the parents with certain characteristics of pure lines are crossed, then all the members of the progeny are of only one phenotype. The phenotype that is expressed in the progeny of the first generation, also known as the first filial generation (F1), is the dominant character, while the phenotype which isn’t expressed is the recessive character.

In this biology activity for dihybrid cross, we’re considering pure homozygous yellow seeds and red-coloured flowers in pea plants which is a dominant trait with homozygous green seeds and white-coloured flowers in pea plants which is a recessive trait for pollination.

In F1 generation, all the progeny has yellow seeds and red-coloured flowers.

When F1 generation was self-pollinated and F2 generation was obtained, it was observed that along with parental traits of F generation, new combinations of traits, i.e. yellow seeds with white coloured flowers and green seeds with red coloured flowers, were seen.

From the results obtained in F2 generation, Mendel proposed that such a new combination is possible only when factors (later known as genes) control a specific trait and are inherited independently of each other, inferring the law of independent assortment.

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Requirements for this Science Experiment

Beaker Beads

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