Chemistry Practicals Class 11

pH and pH Changes in Aqueous Solution

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About Simulation

  • Through this simulation, you will understand the significance of pH, a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Engaging with the content, you can explore how pH influences chemical reactions, biological processes, and environmental conditions.
  • By examining pH values and indicators, you will identify acidic solutions with pH values below 7, basic solutions with pH values above 7, and neutral solutions with pH 7.
  • By studying dilution principles and pH calculations, you can observe how diluting acidic solutions increases pH and diluting basic solutions decreases pH, affecting their acidity or alkalinity.
  • By following virtual titration experiments, you can track pH variations during the addition of a strong base to an acidic solution, witnessing pH transitions indicative of neutralization reactions.

Chemistry Practical Class

  • By studying equilibrium principles and Le Chatelier's principle, you will understand how the presence of common ions from salts affects the ionization of weak acids and bases, influencing pH levels in solutions.

Simulation Details

Duration – 30 Minutes
Easily Accessible
Languages – Odia & English
Platforms – Android & Windows


Acids are substances that generate free hydrogen ions (H^+ ions) when dissolved in water. Bases produce hydroxyl ions (OH^- ions) when dissolved in water. Acidic solutions are rich in hydrogen ions, and basic solutions are poor in hydrogen ions. It is known that even pure water also ionizes to some extent, although it has very low conductivity. The ionic equilibrium between H_2 O,H^+ and OH^- and it can be written as,

H2 O(liq)⇌H+ (aq)+OH (aq)

Since, H+ is a very small ion and cannot exist independently in water; hence, it combines with another H2O molecule to form H3 O+. So, the above equation can be written as,

2H2 O(liq)⇌ H3 O+ (aq)+OH(aq)

The equilibrium constant for this chemical equation can be written as,

Chemistry Practical Class

Here, water is in large excess, so its change in concentration will be small and can be neglected. Applying this to the above equation provides a new constant Kw i.e., self-ionization constant.

Kw=[H3 O+ ][OH ]

The value of Kw at 250 C is 1.0 ×10-14 and for pure water, the value of [H3 O+]= [OH]= 1.0 × 10-7

By adding acidic ([H3O+] producing ions) and basic substance ([OH] producing ions) to the pure water, the above equilibrium shifts and results in the increase or decrease in the concentration of [H3 O+] and [OH] ions.

If the solution has a maximum concentration of [H3 O+] ions, then the solution is known as acidic, whereas the solution with a higher concentration of [OH] ion, then the solution is known as basic.

Watch this video to learn more about chemistry.

Requirements for this Science Experiment

  • Fruit juices
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Acetic acid
  • Ammonium hydroxide
  • Sodium acetate
  • Ammonium chloride
  • Sodium hydroxide
  • Sodium chloride
  • Ferric chloride
  • Sodium carbonate
  • pH papers
  • Universal indicator
  • pH scale
  • Test tubes
  • Droppers
  • White tile
  • Beakers
  • Burette
  • Burette stand

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