Chemistry Practicals Class 11

Detection of Elements in an Organic Compound

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About Simulation

  • In this simulation, you will understand the significance of Lassaigne’s test for detecting the presence of certain elements, such as nitrogen, sulphur, and halogens, in organic compounds.
  • Through this experiment, you will be able to effectively extract the elements present in organic compounds by fusing them with sodium metal, enabling their subsequent detection and analysis.
  • By exploring the reactivity of sodium metal with organic compounds, you will understand how the extraction facilitates the identification of nitrogen, sulphur, and halogens present in the compounds.
  • You can learn about characteristic tests and reactions used to identify and confirm the presence of nitrogen, sulphur, and halogens, enhancing your skills in organic compound analysis.

Chemistry Practical Class

  • By studying a variety of compounds, you will broaden your understanding of organic chemistry and the diverse structures that incorporate these elements.

Simulation Details

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Duration – 30 Minutes
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Easily Accessible
languages
Languages – Odia & English
software
Platforms – Android & Windows

Description

(1) Detection of nitrogen
Upon fusion with sodium metal, the covalently bonded nitrogen is converted to ionic sodium cyanide. When sodium cyanide is treated with ferrous sulphate, it is converted to sodium ferrocyanide. Further treatment with ferric chloride results in ferric ferrocyanide, a Prussian blue complex.

Chemistry Practical Class

(2) Detection of sulphur
Upon fusion with sodium metal, the sulphur atom present in the organic compound is converted to ionic sodium sulphide, which can be extracted by boiling the fused mass with distilled water and is used for sulphur detection. When reacted with sodium nitroprusside, it gives a purple colour due to the formation of sodium thionitroprusside.

(3) Detection of halogens
Upon fusion with sodium metal, the halogens in the organic compound are converted to ionic sodium halides, which can be extracted by boiling the fused mass with distilled water and are used for the detection of halides.
1) Silver nitrate test
(a)Chlorine:
While preparing Lassaigne’s extract, chlorine from the organic compound reacts with sodium to form sodium chloride. Sodium chloride forms a white precipitate of silver chloride with silver nitrate solution, which is soluble in ammonium hydroxide.
Chemistry Practical Class
(b)BromineSodium bromide formed during the preparation of Lassaigne’s extract reacts with silver nitrate to form a pale yellow precipitate of silver bromide, which is sparingly soluble in ammonium hydroxide.
Chemistry Practical Class
(c)Iodine: Sodium iodide formed during the preparation of sodium fusion extract reacts with silver nitrate solution to form a yellow precipitate of silver iodide, which is insoluble in ammonium hydroxide.
Chemistry Practical Class2) Carbon disulphide testWhen sodium bromide and sodium iodide in Lassaigne’s extract are treated with chlorine water, the bromide and iodide oxidise to the corresponding halogens. This halogen dissolves in carbon disulphide. Bromine imparts an orange colour, and iodine imparts a violet colour in the carbon disulphide layer.Chemistry Practical Class

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Requirements for this Science Experiment

  • Organic compound
  • Sodium metal
  • Distilled water
  • Ferrous sulphate solution
  • Ferric chloride solution
  • Conc. hydrochloric acid
  • Sodium nitroprusside
  • Acetic acid
  • Silver nitrate solution
  • Conc. Nitric acid
  • Ammonium hydroxide
  • Chlorine water
  • Carbon disulphide
  • Test tubes
  • Test tube holder
  • Test tube stand
  • Fusion tubes
  • Bunsen burner
  • Tongs
  • Tripod Stand
  • Wire gauze
  • Spatula
  • China dish
  • Forceps
  • Funnel
  • Filter papers
  • Glass rod
  • Droppers

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