Chemistry Practicals Class 10

Acid-Base Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

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About Simulation

  • In this simulation, you will investigate acid-base reactions in water solutions in an interactive virtual platform by eliminating the need for physical chemicals.
  • You can easily add selected reagents to a virtual test tube and observe the resulting reaction, including the mixing process and any observable changes like gas evolution.
  • By using this simulation, you will learn to recognize acid-base reactions by observing the changes occurring during the reaction.
  • Through the simulation, you can identify the products of the reaction between sodium chloride and concentrated sulfuric acid.

Chemistry Practical Class

  • With this interactive tool, you will gain a deeper understanding of acid-base reactions and their outcomes, enhancing your learning experience.

Simulation Details

Duration – 30 Minutes
Easily Accessible
Languages – Odia & English
Platforms – Android & Windows



Acids are a class of substances characterized by their ability to donate protons (hydrogen ions, H+) to other substances. Acids can be categorized as strong or weak based on their ability to dissociate entirely or partially in an aqueous solution.

Common examples of acids include hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), nitric acid (HNO3), and acetic acid (CH3COOH).


A base is a substance that can accept a proton (H+) or donate an electron pair in a chemical reaction. Bases are often classified into two categories based on their solubility in water:

Strong Bases: These are highly soluble in water and completely dissociate to produce hydroxide ions (OH−) in the solution. Examples include sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH).

Weak Bases: These are partially soluble in water and do not completely dissociate. They produce fewer hydroxide ions in the solution. Ammonia (NH3) is a typical example of a weak base.


A salt is a compound formed when an acid reacts with a base. This reaction is known as neutralization. Salts are typically composed of positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anions), which are held together by ionic bonds. The most common example of salt is table salt (sodium chloride), which is formed from the reaction between the strong acid, i.e. hydrochloric acid (HCl) and the strong base, i.e. sodium hydroxide (NaOH).

What happens to an acid or a base in a water solution?

Solid sodium chloride reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid and forms dry hydrochloric acid gas. Here, HCl is produced in gaseous form as there is no water.

Chemistry Practical Class

A litmus paper works on H+ or OH− ion. Since there is no water in HCl gas, HCl does not dissociate into its ion and does not turn the blue litmus red.

If we use moist blue litmus paper (as depicted in the diagram), then HCl gas will turn blue litmus paper into red. Because in the presence of water, HCl dissociates into H+ and Cl– ions.

Chemistry Practical Class

When a base is dissolved in water, it produces OH– ions. Thus, in the presence of water, bases turn red litmus paper blue.

Chemistry Practical Class

Bases generate hydroxide (OH–) ions in water. Bases which are soluble in water are called alkalis.

Watch this video to learn more about chemistry.

Requirements for this Science Experiment

  • Sodium chloride
  • Conc. Sulphuric acid
  • Distilled water
  • Test tube
  • Test tube stand
  • Test tube holder
  • Spatula
  • Droppers
  • Blue litmus paper

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