Biology Practicals Class 12
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- This biology practical class 12 comprehensively explains artificial pollination.
- Detailed description of controlled pollination introduces the user to the modern program in the plant breeding world known as artificial hybridization.
- You’ll learn about the process of emasculating flowers, i.e. removal of the stamen.
- In this biology practical class 12, learners will understand the process of dusting the pollen grains of the male flower on the emasculated flower.
- Along with emasculation, learners will also understand how to bag the emasculated flower.
- This biology practical allows learners to understand the protocol for tagging the bagged flower.
Artificial hybridization has helped to bring naturally occurring reproductive processes in plants leading to the development of seeds and fruits under human control.
In controlled pollination, male and female parents with desired features (that will be beneficial commercially) are selected.
Emasculation is one of the techniques in artificial hybridization which can be easily brought under human control.
In the emasculation technique, a flower in a bud condition is selected before the anthesis (opening a bud into the flower). Stamens are removed from the selected flower and are termed female plants. This process is known as the emasculation of the flower, which is thereafter referred to as emasculated flower.
The emasculated female plant is then enclosed within the plastic bag to avoid pollination from undesired pollen grains. The plastic bag should be of appropriate size and is held securely with the help of either a paper clip or string, or thread. This process is called bagging.
The bagged stigma of emasculated flowers is dusted with mature pollen grains obtained from desired male plants when they reach maturity. After dusting of pollen grains, the female flower is again covered with the plastic bag allowing the formation of fruits.
Each emasculated flower bears a label for identification. Each label has the name of the seed parent, the letter X, which signifies cross, the name of the pollen parent, and the date on which the cross was affected. This process is called tagging.
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Requirements for this Science Experiment
⦁ Magnifying lens ⦁ Small sharp scissors ⦁ Brush ⦁ Rubber bands ⦁ Paper bags ⦁ Paper clips and tags